Because of the emphasis that is inevitably placed upon the Mosaic Covenant and the Law of Moses in conjunction with many of the various Hebrew Roots movements, I feel it is important to review the particulars of that covenant.
The Mosaic Covenant was given to the Children of Israel at the time of Moses. This covenant was made between the Lord and the Israelite people. This covenant was not made with the Gentiles or the Church, but with Israel only. Please see Deuteronomy 4:7-8, Psalm 147:19-20, and Malachi 4:4;
“Remember ye the law of Moses my servant, which I commanded unto him in Horeb for all Israel, with the statutes and judgments.” – Malachi 4:4 (my emphasis)The Mosaic Covenant was a conditional covenant. If one party to a covenant breaks the covenant, it ceases. The Lord stated that the Children of Israel repeatedly broke their part of the covenant. (Jeremiah 11:10, 31:32) And yet God’s part was perfectly fulfilled by the Lord Jesus who kept it perfectly and gave His blood to make the final atonement for sin. The Mosaic Covenant ceased, and has been replaced.
Blood sacrifices are a large part of the Mosaic Covenant. They were made for atonement of sin (Leviticus 17:11), but it is not possible for the blood of bulls and goats to take away sin. (Hebrews 10:4) This covenant also included diet restrictions and expanded the death penalty to include things like cursing your parents or not obeying the Sabbath. I am quite relieved that Christians are not required to follow the Mosaic Covenant. The Law was strict, and impossible to keep.
“For whosoever shall keep the whole law, and yet offend in one point, he is guilty of all. – James 2:10 (my emphasis)Keeping the Sabbath is a sign of the covenant between God and the Israelites. (Exodus 31:13) There is no command from the Lord to go to worship on the Sabbath. It would have been extremely impractical for the Israelites to go to the Temple every Sabbath because it took many of them days to get there! Neither the dietary restrictions, feast or holy days, nor Sabbath were in effect after the atoning blood of Christ. (Colossians 2:16)
Under the Law of Moses only the Aaronic priesthood was valid. In order for the Lord Jesus, who was not of the Aaronic line, to become High Priest there had to be a change of law. (Hebrews 7:12) The old order and the old priesthood were done away with. Of the five covenants made with Israel, all are unconditional except the Mosaic Covenant. The conditional Mosaic Covenant failed and has been done away with.
Jesus ended the Mosaic Covenant and He became High Priest.
“But Christ being come an high priest of good things to come, by a greater and more perfect tabernacle, not made with hands, that is to say, not of this building; Neither by the blood of goats and calves, but by his own blood he entered in once into the holy place, having obtained eternal redemption for us.” – Hebrews 9:11-12The Lord deserves all honor and praise for sending the Lord Jesus to confirm the New Covenant. Praise His name for His mercy and grace. May He be praised always and ever!