Although the location is not identified in the Genesis account, the Book of Enoch states that the Sons of God that rebelled and took human wives (Genesis 6:2) descended from Heaven to the top of Mount Hermon. Jude, the brother of James (and half-brother of Jesus) refers to the Book of Enoch (Jude 14) and also speaks of these angels who left their natural habitation, or home. (Jude 6)
Mount Hermon is clearly the tallest mountain in Israel, and is located in the northern part of that land. Secular history reports that Mount Hermon was the seat of the demi-god, Baal. It was at Mount Hermon that the obscene Temple of Pan was built in front of a cave known as the “Gates of Hell.” Evil spirits were reputed to enter and leave the underworld from this cave. The temple is gone, but the cave is still there. It is at a town formerly known as Caesarea Philippi.
It was at Caesarea Philippi that the Lord Jesus asked His disciples, “Whom do men say that I the Son of man am?” It was here that Peter responded, “Thou art the Christ, the Son of the living God.” This was also the very spot where Jesus told the disciples that the “Gates of Hell” shall not prevail against His Church. It is very possible that they were standing near the cave, known by that name, at the foot of Mount Hermon. (Matthew 16:13-18)
In the next chapter (Matthew 17:1) Jesus took Peter, James and John to a high mountain. Mount Hermon is very large, and is the only mountain in the region near where they were located in chapter 16. On this mountain, the Lord Jesus was “transfigured” and appeared with Moses and Elijah in garments as white as the light. I believe they were clothed in the glory of God.
Here we must remember that there are spiritual beings that have been given authority over certain areas. Recall the angel who struggled with “the prince of Persia.” (Daniel 10:13) Again, the Apostle Paul referred to these principalities, powers, rulers of darkness and spiritual wickedness in high places. (Ephesians 6:12)
Author Derek Gilbert suggests that Jesus chose Mount Hermon, the seat of worship of Baal (which means lord), to give notice that He, the Son of the Most High God, was the true Lord and Master, and not the demi-god, Baal.
Paul also told us that we are complete in Jesus, who is the head of all principality and power. (Colossians 2:10) He emphasized this a few verses later:
“And having spoiled principalities and powers, He made a show of them openly, triumphing over them in it.” – Colossians 2:15 (my emphasis)
I strongly suspect that Brother Gilbert is correct, and Paul seems to confirm it in Colossians 2:15. Although we are not given the name of the Mount of Transfiguration, from the chronology of Scripture and from the probable purpose of the Lord Jesus, it is very possible that the transfiguration took place on Mount Hermon.
Whether my suspicion is correct or not, the Lord Jesus was victorious over principalities, powers, rulers of darkness, spiritual evil, sin and death! Praise His wonderful name, always!